Posted by AJ Maschinot, Senior Software Engineer and Jenny Huang, Product Manager, Google Research
In recent years, self-supervised representation learning, which is used in a variety of image and video tasks, has significantly advanced due to the application of contrastive learning. These contrastive learning approaches typically teach a model to pull together the representations of a target image (a.k.a., the “anchor”) and a matching (“positive”) image in embedding space, while also pushing apart the anchor from many non-matching (“negative”) images. Because labels are assumed to be unavailable in self-supervised learning, the positive is often an augmentation of the anchor, and the negatives are chosen to be the other samples from the training minibatch. However, because of this random sampling, false negatives, i.e., negatives generated from samples of the same class as the anchor, can cause a degradation in the representation quality. Furthermore, determining the optimal method to generate positives is still an area of active research.
In contrast to the self-supervised approach, a fully-supervised approach could use labeled data to generate positives from existing same-class examples, providing more variability in pretraining than could typically be achieved by simply augmenting the anchor. However, very little work has been done to successfully apply contrastive learning in the fully-supervised domain.
In “Supervised Contrastive Learning”, presented at NeurIPS 2020, we propose a novel loss function, called SupCon, that bridges the gap between self-supervised learning and fully supervised learning and enables contrastive learning to be applied in the supervised setting. Leveraging labeled data, SupCon encourages normalized embeddings from the same class to be pulled closer together, while embeddings from different classes are pushed apart. This simplifies the process of positive selection, while avoiding potential false negatives. Because it accommodates multiple positives per anchor, this approach results in an improved selection of positive examples that are more varied, while still containing semantically relevant information. SupCon also allows label information
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