Posted by Forrester Cole, Software Engineer and Tali Dekel, Research Scientist
Image and video editing operations often rely on accurate mattes — images that define a separation between foreground and background. While recent computer vision techniques can produce high-quality mattes for natural images and videos, allowing real-world applications such as generating synthetic depth-of-field, editing and synthesising images, or removing backgrounds from images, one fundamental piece is missing: the various scene effects that the subject may generate, like shadows, reflections, or smoke, are typically overlooked.
In “Omnimatte: Associating Objects and Their Effects in Video”, presented at CVPR 2021, we describe a new approach to matte generation that leverages layered neural rendering to separate a video into layers called omnimattes that include not only the subjects but also all of the effects related to them in the scene. Whereas a typical state-of-the-art segmentation model extracts masks for the subjects in a scene, for example, a person and a dog, the method proposed here can isolate and extract additional details associated with the subjects, such as shadows cast on the ground.
A state-of-the-art segmentation network (e.g., MaskRCNN) takes an input video (left) and produces plausible masks for people and animals (middle), but misses their associated effects. Our method produces mattes that include not only the subjects, but their shadows as well (right; individual channels for person and dog visualized as blue and green).
Also unlike segmentation masks, omnimattes can capture partially-transparent, soft effects such as reflections, splashes, or tire smoke. Like conventional mattes, omnimattes are RGBA images that can be manipulated using widely-available image or video editing tools, and can be used wherever conventional mattes are used, for example, to insert text into a video underneath a smoke trail.
Layered Decomposition of Video
To generate omnimattes, we split the input video into a set of layers: one for each moving subject, and one
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