Quantum Machine Learning and the Power of Data

Posted by Jarrod McClean, Staff Research Scientist and Hsin-Yuan (Robert) Huang1, Intern, Google Quantum AI

Quantum computing has rapidly advanced in both theory and practice in recent years, and with it the hope for the potential impact in real applications. One key area of interest is how quantum computers might affect machine learning. We recently demonstrated experimentally that quantum computers are able to naturally solve certain problems with complex correlations between inputs that can be incredibly hard for traditional, or “classical”, computers. This suggests that learning models made on quantum computers may be dramatically more powerful for select applications, potentially boasting faster computation, better generalization on less data, or both. Hence it is of great interest to understand in what situations such a “quantum advantage” might be achieved.

The idea of quantum advantage is typically phrased in terms of computational advantages. That is, given some task with well defined inputs and outputs, can a quantum computer achieve a more accurate result than a classical machine in a comparable runtime? There are a number of algorithms for which quantum computers are suspected to have overwhelming advantages, such as Shor’s factoring algorithm for factoring products of large primes (relevant to RSA encryption) or the quantum simulation of quantum systems. However, the difficulty of solving a problem, and hence the potential advantage for a quantum computer, can be greatly impacted by the availability of data. As such, understanding when a quantum computer can help in a machine learning task depends not only on the task, but also the data available, and a complete understanding of this must include both.

In “Power of data in quantum machine learning”, published in Nature Communications, we dissect the problem of quantum advantage in machine learning to better understand when it will apply. We show how the complexity of a problem formally changes with the availability of data, and how this

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